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After appeal, jail in NYC Dead Sea Scrolls case
After appeal, jail sentence in NYC Dead Sea Scrolls case that got a harassment law scrapped
By JENNIFER PELTZ
Associated Press
2014-07-14 11:42 PM

NEW YORK (AP) -- A man convicted of using digital-age tools to impersonate and malign his father's academic rivals on the ancient subject of the Dead Sea Scrolls was sentenced Monday to two months in jail after the state's highest court tossed out some of his convictions -- and with them, a state aggravated-harassment law.

The sentencing of Raphael Golb, who also got three years' probation, came after the Court of Appeals upheld convictions on other charges, including criminal impersonation and forgery. Golb had been sentenced earlier to six months' jail but free on bail during his appeal.

Golb was given a surrender date of July 22, but could ask the courts to hold off the jail term while appealing the case further.

From the start, the case was a rarity. Claims of Internet imitation seldom spur criminal trials at all, let alone trials that air an abstruse but vigorous scholarly dispute over the Scrolls' origins. And with the high court's May ruling, Golb's case gained another distinction: striking down an often-used aggravated harassment law that police and prosecutors saw as an important tool for pursuing domestic violence and other cases, but Golb called an unconstitutional intrusion on free-speech rights.

The state Legislature has since passed a revised version of the law that they believe will pass muster with courts.

Golb, a literature scholar and lawyer, acknowledged disguising his identity in emails and blog posts to discredit detractors of his father's views on the scrolls' origins.

Containing the earliest known versions of portions of the Hebrew Bible, the scrolls have enhanced scholars' understanding of the history of Judaism and the beginnings of Christianity since their discovery in caves in Israel, beginning in the 1940s. Some researchers believe the texts were assembled by a sect known as the Essenes; others -- including Golb's father, historian Norman Golb -- say the writings were the work of a range of Jewish groups and communities.

Raphael Golb used various online aliases to take on his father's adversaries in the debate, at one point opening an email account in a prominent Judaic studies professor's name and sending out messages in which that professor appeared to confess to plagiarizing Norman Golb's work. The professor denied it.

Raphael Golb said the electronic barbs were satire, not crime. But the Manhattan district attorney's office and jurors said the emails and posts amounted to a campaign of offenses including second-degree aggravated harassment. The misdemeanor charge involved communicating with someone "in a manner likely to cause annoyance or alarm" and with the intent to do so.

Golb's lawyer, Ronald Kuby, argued that it turned criticism into a crime if the object of the complaint felt irritated, but not necessarily imperiled.

"You cannot arrest somebody for being annoying," Kuby said in a recent interview. "Unwanted communication is not a threat -- it is merely unwanted communication."

The Court of Appeals agreed the law was "unconstitutionally vague and overbroad."

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